BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic vascular endothelial inflammation predisposes to atherosclerosis; however, the cell-autonomous roles for endothelial-expressing microRNAs (miRNAs) are poorly understood in this process. MiR-181b is expressed in several cellular constituents relevant to lesion formation. The aim of this study is to examine the role of genetic deficiency of the miR-181b locus in endothelial cells during atherogenesis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)-induced atherosclerosis mouse model, we demonstrated that endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of miR-181a2b2 significantly promoted atherosclerotic lesion formation, cell adhesion molecule expression, and the influx of lesional macrophages in the vessel wall. Yet, endothelium deletion of miR-181a2b2 did not affect body weight, lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory Ly6Clow or the pro-inflammatory Ly6Cinterm and Ly6Chigh fractions in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory mediators in both bone marrow (BM) and PBMCs. Mechanistically, bulk RNA-seq and gene set enrichment analysis of ECs enriched from the aortic arch intima, as well as single cell RNA-seq from atherosclerotic lesions, revealed that endothelial miR-181a2b2 serves as a critical regulatory hub in controlling endothelial inflammation, cell adhesion, cell cycle, and immune response during atherosclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes that deficiency of a miRNA specifically in the vascular endothelium is sufficient to profoundly impact atherogenesis. Endothelial miR-181a2b2 deficiency regulates multiple key pathways related to endothelial inflammation, cell adhesion, cell cycle, and immune response involved in the development of atherosclerosis.
Vivian Morris, Dahai Wang, Zhiheng Li, William Marion, Travis Hughes, Patricia Sousa, Taku Harada, Shannan Ho Sui, Sergey Naumenko, Jérémie Kalfon, Prerana Sensharma, Marcelo Falchetti, Renan Vinicius da Silva, Tito Candelli, Pauline Schneider, Thanasis Margaritis, Frank CP Holstege, Yana Pikman, Marian Harris, Ronald W Stam, Stuart H Orkin, Angela N Koehler, Alex K Shalek, Trista E North, Maxim Pimkin, George Q Daley, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, and Grant R Rowe. 2022. “Hypoxic, glycolytic metabolism is a vulnerability of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia-initiating cells.” Cell Rep, 39, 4, Pp. 110752.Abstract
High-risk forms of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) remain a therapeutic challenge. Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) self-renew and spark relapse and therefore have been the subject of intensive investigation; however, the properties of LICs in high-risk B-ALL are not well understood. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics and quantitative xenotransplantation to understand LICs in MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) B-ALL. Compared with reported LIC frequencies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), engraftable LICs in MLL-r B-ALL are abundant. Although we find that multipotent, self-renewing LICs are enriched among phenotypically undifferentiated B-ALL cells, LICs with the capacity to replenish the leukemic cellular diversity can emerge from more mature fractions. While inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation blunts blast proliferation, this intervention promotes LIC emergence. Conversely, inhibiting hypoxia and glycolysis impairs MLL-r B-ALL LICs, providing a therapeutic benefit in xenotransplantation systems. These findings provide insight into the aggressive nature of MLL-r B-ALL and provide a rationale for therapeutic targeting of hypoxia and glycolysis.
Synucleinopathy (Parkinson's disease (PD); Lewy body dementia) disease-modifying treatments represent a huge unmet medical need. Although the PD-causing protein α-synuclein (αS) interacts with lipids and fatty acids (FA) physiologically and pathologically, targeting FA homeostasis for therapeutics is in its infancy. We identified the PD-relevant target stearoyl-coA desaturase: inhibiting monounsaturated FA synthesis reversed PD phenotypes. However, lipid degradation also generates FA pools. Here, we identify the rate-limiting lipase enzyme, LIPE, as a candidate target. Decreasing LIPE in human neural cells reduced αS inclusions. Patient αS triplication vs. corrected neurons had increased pSer129 and insoluble αS and decreased αS tetramer:monomer ratios. LIPE inhibition rescued all these and the abnormal unfolded protein response. LIPE inhibitors decreased pSer129 and restored tetramer:monomer equilibrium in αS E46K-expressing human neurons. LIPE reduction in vivo alleviated αS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Co-regulating FA synthesis and degradation proved additive in rescuing PD phenotypes, signifying co-targeting as a therapeutic strategy.
Chronic liver injury causes fibrosis, characterized by the formation of scar tissue resulting from excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) myofibroblasts are the primary cell type responsible for liver fibrosis, yet there are currently no therapies directed at inhibiting the activity of HSC myofibroblasts. To search for potential anti-fibrotic compounds, we performed a high-throughput compound screen in primary human HSC myofibroblasts and identified 19 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation, including the polyether ionophore nanchangmycin (NCMC). NCMC induces lipid re-accumulation while reducing collagen expression, deposition of collagen in the extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, and migration. We find that NCMC increases cytosolic Ca\textsuperscript2+ and reduces the phosphorylated protein levels of FYN, PTK2 (FAK), MAPK1/3 (ERK2/1), HSPB1 (HSP27), and STAT5B. Further, depletion of each of these kinases suppress \textitCOL1A1 expression. These studies reveal a signaling network triggered by NCMC to inactivate HSC myofibroblasts and reduce expression of proteins that compose the fibrotic scar. Identification of the antifibrotic effects of NCMC and the elucidation of pathways by which NCMC inhibits fibrosis provide new tools and therapeutic targets that could potentially be utilized to combat the development and progression of liver fibrosis.
BACKGROUND: Perivascular fibrosis, characterized by increased amount of connective tissue around vessels, is a hallmark for vascular disease. Ang II (angiotensin II) contributes to vascular disease and end-organ damage via promoting T-cell activation. Despite recent data suggesting the role of T cells in the progression of perivascular fibrosis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.
METHODS: TF (transcription factor) profiling was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hypertensive patients. CD4-targeted KLF10 (Kruppel like factor 10)-deficient (Klf10fl/flCD4Cre+; [TKO]) and CD4-Cre (Klf10+/+CD4Cre+; [Cre]) control mice were subjected to Ang II infusion. End point characterization included cardiac echocardiography, aortic imaging, multiorgan histology, flow cytometry, cytokine analysis, aorta and fibroblast transcriptomic analysis, and aortic single-cell RNA-sequencing.
RESULTS: TF profiling identified increased KLF10 expression in hypertensive human subjects and in CD4+ T cells in Ang II-treated mice. TKO mice showed enhanced perivascular fibrosis, but not interstitial fibrosis, in aorta, heart, and kidney in response to Ang II, accompanied by alterations in global longitudinal strain, arterial stiffness, and kidney function compared with Cre control mice. However, blood pressure was unchanged between the 2 groups. Mechanistically, KLF10 bound to the IL (interleukin)-9 promoter and interacted with HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) inhibit IL-9 transcription. Increased IL-9 in TKO mice induced fibroblast intracellular calcium mobilization, fibroblast activation, and differentiation and increased production of collagen and extracellular matrix, thereby promoting the progression of perivascular fibrosis and impairing target organ function. Remarkably, injection of anti-IL9 antibodies reversed perivascular fibrosis in Ang II-infused TKO mice and C57BL/6 mice. Single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed fibroblast heterogeneity with activated signatures associated with robust ECM (extracellular matrix) and perivascular fibrosis in Ang II-treated TKO mice.
CONCLUSIONS: CD4+ T cell deficiency of Klf10 exacerbated perivascular fibrosis and multi-organ dysfunction in response to Ang II via upregulation of IL-9. Klf10 or IL-9 in T cells might represent novel therapeutic targets for treatment of vascular or fibrotic diseases.
Atelectasis is a frequent clinical condition, yet knowledge is limited and controversial on its biological contribution towards lung injury. We assessed the regional proteomics of atelectatic versus normally-aerated lung tissue to test the hypothesis that immune and alveolar-capillary barrier functions are compromised by purely atelectasis and dysregulated by additional systemic inflammation (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Without LPS, 130 proteins were differentially abundant in atelectasis versus aerated lung, mostly (n = 126) with less abundance together with negatively enriched processes in immune, endothelial and epithelial function, and Hippo signaling pathway. Instead, LPS-exposed atelectasis produced 174 differentially abundant proteins, mostly (n = 108) increased including acute lung injury marker RAGE and chemokine CCL5. Functional analysis indicated enhanced leukocyte processes and negatively enriched cell-matrix adhesion and cell junction assembly with LPS. Additionally, extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling were negatively enriched in atelectasis with decreased adhesive glycoprotein THBS1 regardless of LPS. Concordance of a subset of transcriptomics and proteomics revealed overlap of leukocyte-related gene-protein pairs and processes. Together, proteomics of exclusively atelectasis indicates decreased immune response, which converts into an increased response with LPS. Alveolar-capillary barrier function-related proteomics response is down-regulated in atelectasis irrespective of LPS. Specific proteomics signatures suggest biological mechanistic and therapeutic targets for atelectasis-associated lung injury.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with limited therapeutic options that is characterized by pathological fibroblast activation and aberrant lung remodeling with scar formation. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator that mediates mechanical and biochemical signals controlling fibroblast activation. We previously identified HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as YAP inhibitors based on a high-throughput small-molecule screen in primary human lung fibroblasts. Here we report that several Aurora kinase inhibitors were also identified from the top hits of this screen. MK-5108, a highly selective inhibitor for Aurora kinase A (AURKA), induced YAP phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention, and significantly reduced profibrotic gene expression in human lung fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on YAP nuclear translocation and profibrotic gene expression is specific to inhibition of AURKA, but not Aurora kinase B or C, and is independent of the Hippo pathway kinases LATS1 and LATS2. Further characterization of the effects of MK-5108 demonstrate that it inhibits YAP nuclear localization indirectly via effects on actin polymerization and TGFβ signaling. In addition, MK-5108 treatment reduced lung collagen deposition in the bleomycin mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Our results reveal a novel role for AURKA in YAP-mediated profibrotic activity in fibroblasts and highlight the potential of small-molecule screens for YAP inhibitors for identification of novel agents with anti-fibrotic activity.
BACKGROUND: Several epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) have been reported. However, EWAS of PM2.5 elements (PEs), reflecting different emission sources, are very limited.
OBJECTIVES: We performed EWAS of short- and intermediate-term exposure to PM2.5 and 13 PEs. We hypothesized that significant changes in DNAm may vary by PM2.5 mass and its elements.
METHODS: We repeatedly collected blood samples in the Normative Aging Study and measured leukocyte DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. We collected daily PM2.5 and 13 PEs at a fixed central site. To estimate the associations between each PE and DNAm at individual cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, we incorporated a distributed-lag (0-27 d) term in the setting of median regression with subject-specific intercept and examined cumulative lag associations. We also accounted for selection bias due to loss to follow-up and mortality prior to enrollment. Significantly differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were identified using Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We further conducted regional and pathway analyses to identify significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and pathways.
RESULTS: We included 695 men with 1,266 visits between 1999 and 2013. The subjects had a mean age of 75 years. The significant DMPs, DMRs, and pathways varied by to PM2.5 total mass and PEs. For example, PM2.5 total mass was associated with 2,717 DMPs and 10,470 DMRs whereas Pb was associated with 3,173 DMPs and 637 DMRs. The identified pathways by PM2.5 mass were mostly involved in mood disorders, neuroplasticity, immunity, and inflammation, whereas the pathways associated with motor vehicles (BC, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were related with cardiovascular disease and cancer (e.g., "PPARs signaling").
CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 and PE were associated with methylation changes at multiple probes and along multiple pathways, in ways that varied by particle components.
Rejection is the primary barrier to broader implementation of vascularized composite allografts (VCAs), including face and limb transplants. The immunologic pathways activated in face transplant rejection have not been fully characterized.METHODSUsing skin biopsies prospectively collected over 9 years from 7 face transplant patients, we studied rejection by gene expression profiling, histology, immunostaining, and T cell receptor sequencing.RESULTSGrade 1 rejection did not differ significantly from nonrejection, suggesting that it does not represent a pathologic state. In grade 2, there was a balanced upregulation of both proinflammatory T cell activation pathways and antiinflammatory checkpoint and immunomodulatory pathways, with a net result of no tissue injury. In grade 3, IFN-γ-driven inflammation, antigen-presenting cell activation, and infiltration of the skin by proliferative T cells bearing markers of antigen-specific activation and cytotoxicity tipped the balance toward tissue injury. Rejection of VCAs and solid organ transplants had both distinct and common features. VCA rejection was uniquely associated with upregulation of immunoregulatory genes, including SOCS1; induction of lipid antigen-presenting CD1 proteins; and infiltration by T cells predicted to recognize CD1b and CD1c.CONCLUSIONOur findings suggest that the distinct features of VCA rejection reflect the unique immunobiology of skin and that enhancing cutaneous immunoregulatory networks may be a useful strategy in combatting rejection.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01281267.FUNDINGAssistant Secretary of Defense and Health Affairs, through Reconstructive Transplant Research (W81XWH-17-1-0278, W81XWH-16-1-0647, W81XWH-16-1-0689, W81XWH-18-1-0784, W81XWH-1-810798); American Society of Transplantation's Transplantation and Immunology Research Network Fellowship Research Grant; Plastic Surgery Foundation Fellowship from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons; Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF15OC0014092); Lundbeck Foundation; Aage Bangs Foundation; A.P. Moller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science; NIH UL1 RR025758.
BACKGROUND: Despite a number of known health hazards of welding fume exposure, it is unclear how exposure affects the human metabolome. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic profiles of welders before and after a 6-hour welding shift, controlling for circadian rhythm of metabolism on a non-welding day. METHODS: Welders were recruited from a training centre in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 2006 and 2010-2012 and donated blood samples on a welding shift day before and after work, as well as on a non-welding day spent in an adjacent classroom. In total, we collected 509 samples from 74 participants. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantified 665 metabolites from thawed plasmas. Metabolites with significant time (afternoon compared with morning) and day (welding/classroom) interactions were identified by two-way analysis of variance, and the overnight changes were evaluated. RESULTS: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingasine 1-phosphate (SA1P) exhibited significant interaction effects between day and time with false discovery rate-adjusted p values of 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. S1P, SA1P and sphingosine shared similar trends over time: high relative levels in the morning of a non-welding day declining by afternoon, but with lower starting levels on a welding day and no decline. There was no obvious pattern related to current smoking status. CONCLUSION: S1P and SA1P profiles were different between welding day and classroom day. The S1P pathway was disrupted on the day of welding exposure. The levels of S1P, SA1P and sphingosine were highly correlated over time. S1P is a signalling lipid with many vital roles; thus, the underlying mechanism and clinical implications of this alteration need further investigation.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal, therapy-resistant cancer that thrives in a highly desmoplastic, nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Several studies investigated the effects of depriving PDA of either glucose or glutamine alone. However, the consequences on PDA growth and metabolism of limiting both preferred nutrients have remained largely unknown. Here, we report the selection for clonal human PDA cells that survive and adapt to limiting levels of both glucose and glutamine. We find that adapted clones exhibit increased growth in vitro and enhanced tumor-forming capacity in vivo. Mechanistically, adapted clones share common transcriptional and metabolic programs, including amino acid use for de novo glutamine and nucleotide synthesis. They also display enhanced mTORC1 activity that prevents the proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase (GS), the rate-limiting enzyme for glutamine synthesis. This phenotype is notably reversible, with PDA cells acquiring alterations in open chromatin upon adaptation. Silencing of GS suppresses the enhanced growth of adapted cells and mitigates tumor growth. These findings identify nongenetic adaptations to nutrient deprivation in PDA and highlight GS as a dependency that could be targeted therapeutically in pancreatic cancer patients.
Introduction: Human metabolism and inflammation are closely related modulators of homeostasis and immunity. Metabolic profiling is a useful tool to understand the association between metabolism and inflammation at a systemic level.
Objective: To investigate the longitudinal associations between the concentration of plasma metabolites and biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress.
Methods: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis consisting of 8 short-term panels that included 88 healthy adult male welders in Massachusetts, USA. In each panel, we collected 1-6 repeated measurements of blood and urine. We used a human vascular injury panel assay and custom cytokine/chemokine assay to quantify inflammatory biomarker plasma levels, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify the concentrations of 665 plasma metabolites, and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay to quantify urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate the longitudinal association between each inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarker and each metabolite.
Results: At a 5% FDR threshold, we detected ≥1metabolite association for 8 unique inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: urinary 8-isoprostane, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1, circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor. Specifically, 3 metabolites in the androgenic steroids pathway were negatively associated with SAA; 3 dihydrosphingomyelins metabolites were positively associated with 1 or more of CRP, SAA, IL-8 and IL-10; 4 metabolites in acyl choline metabolism pathways were negatively associated with IL-8; 7 lysophospholipid metabolites were negatively associated with 1 or more of CRP, SAA and IL-8; 4 sphingomyelins were positively associated with CRP and/or SAA; and 10 metabolites in the xanthine pathway were positively associated with urinary 8-isoprostane.
Conclusion: We found that metabolites in phospholipid groups had strong associations with multiple inflammatory biomarkers, especially CRP, SAA and IL-8. The mechanism of these associations warrants further investigation.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against tumors are maintained by stem-like memory cells that self-renew but also give rise to effector-like cells. The latter gradually lose their anti-tumor activity and acquire an epigenetically fixed, hypofunctional state, leading to tumor tolerance. Here, we show that the conversion of stem-like into effector-like CTLs involves a major chemotactic reprogramming that includes the upregulation of chemokine receptor CXCR6. This receptor positions effector-like CTLs in a discrete perivascular niche of the tumor stroma that is densely occupied by CCR7+ dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the CXCR6 ligand CXCL16. CCR7+ DCs also express and trans-present the survival cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15). CXCR6 expression and IL-15 trans-presentation are critical for the survival and local expansion of effector-like CTLs in the tumor microenvironment to maximize their anti-tumor activity before progressing to irreversible dysfunction. These observations reveal a cellular and molecular checkpoint that determines the magnitude and outcome of anti-tumor immune responses.
Functionally relevant neuronal connections are often organized within discrete layers of neuropil to ensure proper connectivity and information processing. While layer-specific assembly of neuronal connectivity is a dynamic process involving stepwise interactions between different neuron types, the mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process are not well understood. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor dFezf in layer selection within the Drosophila visual system, which is important for synaptic specificity. Our findings show that dFezf functions as a transcriptional repressor governing the precise temporal expression pattern of downstream genes, including other transcription factors required for proper connectivity. Layer-specific assembly of neuronal connectivity in the fly visual system is thus orchestrated by precise, temporally controlled transcriptional cascades.The layered compartmentalization of synaptic connections, a common feature of nervous systems, underlies proper connectivity between neurons and enables parallel processing of neural information. However, the stepwise development of layered neuronal connections is not well understood. The medulla neuropil of the Drosophila visual system, which comprises 10 discrete layers (M1 to M10), where neural computations underlying distinct visual features are processed, serves as a model system for understanding layered synaptic connectivity. The first step in establishing layer-specific connectivity in the outer medulla (M1 to M6) is the innervation by lamina (L) neurons of one of two broad, primordial domains that will subsequently expand and transform into discrete layers. We previously found that the transcription factor dFezf cell-autonomously directs L3 lamina neurons to their proper primordial broad domain before they form synapses within the developing M3 layer. Here, we show that dFezf controls L3 broad domain selection through temporally precise transcriptional repression of the transcription factor slp1 (sloppy paired 1). In wild-type L3 neurons, slp1 is transiently expressed at a low level during broad domain selection. When dFezf is deleted, slp1 expression is up-regulated, and ablation of slp1 fully rescues the defect of broad domain selection in dFezf-null L3 neurons. Although the early, transient expression of slp1 is expendable for broad domain selection, it is surprisingly necessary for the subsequent L3 innervation of the M3 layer. DFezf thus functions as a transcriptional repressor to coordinate the temporal dynamics of a transcriptional cascade that orchestrates sequential steps of layer-specific synapse formation.All raw data for RNA-seq and ATAC-seq have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/ (accession no. GSE163311) (47).
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with simple steatosis (SS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is associated with liver-related mortality. The mechanisms contributing to liver fibrosis development in SS, however, are poorly understood. SS is characterized by hepatocellular free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation without lobular inflammation seen in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Because the Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator YAP1 (YAP) has previously been linked with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related fibrosis, we sought to explore how hepatocyte FFAs activate a YAP-mediated profibrogenic program.
METHODS: We analyzed RNA sequencing data from a GEO DataSet (accession: GSE162694) consisting of 143 patients with NAFLD. We also performed immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses (qRT-PCR) in liver specimens from NAFLD subjects, from a murine dietary NAFLD model, and in FFA-treated hepatic spheroids and hepatocytes.
RESULTS: YAP-target gene expression correlated with increasing fibrosis stage in NAFLD patients and was associated with fibrosis in mice fed a NAFLD-inducing diet. Hepatocyte-specific YAP deletion in the murine NAFLD model attenuated diet-induced fibrosis, suggesting a causative role of YAP in NAFLD-related fibrosis. Likewise, in hepatic spheroids composed of Huh7 hepatoma cells and primary human hepatic stellate cells, Huh7 YAP silencing reduced FFA-induced fibrogenic gene expression. Notably, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase could block YAP activation in FFA-treated Huh7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide further evidence for the pathological role of YAP in NAFLD-associated fibrosis and that YAP activation in NAFLD may be driven by FFA-induced p38 MAPK activation.
Jesse Fajnzylber, Radwa Sharaf, John N Hutchinson, Evgenia Aga, Ronald J Bosch, Wendy Hartogensis, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Elizabeth Connick, Paul Volberding, Daniel J Skiest, David Margolis, Michael C Sneller, Susan J Little, Roy M Gulick, John W Mellors, Rajesh T Gandhi, Robert T Schooley, Keith Henry, Pablo Tebas, Steve Deeks, Tae-Wook Chun, Ann C Collier, Frederick M Hecht, and Jonathan Z Li. 2021. “Frequency of post treatment control varies by antiretroviral therapy restart and viral load criteria.” AIDS, 35, 13, Pp. 2225-2227.Abstract
Clinical trials including an analytical treatment interruption (ATI) are vital for evaluating the efficacy of novel strategies for HIV remissions. We briefly describe an interactive tool for predicting viral rebound timing in ATI trials and the impact of posttreatment controller (PTC) definitions on PTC frequency estimates. A 4-week viral load threshold of 1000 cps/ml provides both high specificity and sensitivity for PTC detection. PTC frequency varies greatly based on the definition of a PTC.
OBJECTIVE: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dynamically regulated by fasting and feeding cycles in the liver to promote protein and lipid synthesis while suppressing autophagy. However, beyond these functions, the metabolic response of the liver to feeding and insulin signaling orchestrated by mTORC1 remains poorly defined. Here, we determine whether ATF4, a stress responsive transcription factor recently found to be independently regulated by mTORC1 signaling in proliferating cells, is responsive to hepatic mTORC1 signaling to alter hepatocyte metabolism.
METHODS: ATF4 protein levels and expression of canonical gene targets were analyzed in the liver following fasting and physiological feeding in the presence or absence of the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin. Primary hepatocytes from wild-type or liver-specific Atf4 knockout (LAtf4KO) mice were used to characterize the effects of insulin-stimulated mTORC1-ATF4 function on hepatocyte gene expression and metabolism. Both unbiased steady-state metabolomics and stable-isotope tracing methods were employed to define mTORC1 and ATF4-dependent metabolic changes. RNA-sequencing was used to determine global changes in feeding-induced transcripts in the livers of wild-type versus LAtf4KO mice.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that ATF4 and its metabolic gene targets are stimulated by mTORC1 signaling in the liver, in a hepatocyte-intrinsic manner by insulin in response to feeding. While we demonstrate that de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis is stimulated by insulin through mTORC1 signaling in primary hepatocytes, this regulation was independent of ATF4. Metabolomics and metabolite tracing studies revealed that insulin-mTORC1-ATF4 signaling stimulates pathways of nonessential amino acid synthesis in primary hepatocytes, including those of alanine, aspartate, methionine, and cysteine, but not serine.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that ATF4 is a novel metabolic effector of mTORC1 in the liver, extending the molecular consequences of feeding and insulin-induced mTORC1 signaling in this key metabolic tissue to the control of amino acid metabolism.